Civil engineer

Following are few general points to remember for civil site engineers to make the construction work easier while maintaining quality of construction.

Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.

Chair spacing maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1m2.

For dowels rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.

Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.

Longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.

Minimum bars for square column is 4 No s and 6 No s for circular column.

Main bars in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.

Minimum thickness of slab is 125 mm.

Dimension tolerance for cubes + 2 mm.

Free fall of concrete is allowed maximum to 1.50m.

Lap slices not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.

Water absorption of bricks should not be more than 15 %.

PH value of the water should not be less than 6.

Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm2.

In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 kg per MT.

In soil filling as per IS code, 3 samples should be taken for core cutting test for every 100m2.

Density Of Material:
Materials Density
Bricks 1600 - 1920 Kg/m2
Concrete Block 1920 Kg/ m2
Reinforced Concrete 2310 - 2700 Kg/m2
Curing time of RCC Members for different types of cement:

Super Sulphate cement: 7 days

Ordinary Portland cement OPC: 10 days

Minerals & Admixture added cement: 14 days

De-Shuttering time of different RCC Members

Arches spanning over 6m21 days

RCC Member De-shuttering time 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
RCC Member De-shuttering time
For columns, walls, vertical form works 16-24 hrs.
Soffit formwork to slabs 3 days (props to be refixed after removal)
Soffit to beams props 7 days (props to refixed after removal)
Beams spanning upto 4.5m 7 days
Beams spanning over 4.5m 14 days<
Arches spanning up to 6m 14 days
Cube samples required for different quantity of concrete:
Quantity of Concrete No. of cubes required
1 5 m3 1 No s
6 0 15 m3 2 No s
16 30 m3 3 No s
31 50 m3 4 No s
Above 50 m3 4 + 1 No s of addition of each 50 m3

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Architectural Advice

Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. Definitions of an architectural engineer may refer to:

An engineer in the structural, mechanical, electrical, construction or other engineering fields of building design and construction.

A licensed engineering professional in parts of the United States.

Architectural engineers are those who work with other engineers and architects for the designing and construction of buildings.

Building code

A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, usually from a local council. The main purpose of building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority.

Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, interior designers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants, and others. Codes regulating the design and construction of structures where adopted into law. Examples of building codes began in ancient times.

In the USA the main codes are the International Commercial or Residential Code [ICC/IRC], electrical codes and plumbing, mechanical codes. Fifty states and the District of Columbia have adopted the I-Codes at the state or jurisdictional level.

In Canada, national model codes are published by the National Research Council of Canada.

Earthquake resistant structures

Earthquake-resistant structures are structures designed to withstand earthquakes. While no structure can be entirely immune to damage from earthquakes, the goal of earthquake-resistant construction is to erect structures that fare better during seismic activity than their conventional counterparts.

According to building codes, earthquake-resistant structures are intended to withstand the largest earthquake of a certain probability that is likely to occur at their location. This means the loss of life should be minimized by preventing collapse of the buildings for rare earthquakes while the loss of the functionality should be limited for more frequent ones.

To combat earthquake destruction, the only method available to ancient architects was to build their landmark structures to last, often by making them excessively stiff and strong, like the El Castillo pyramid at Chichen Itza.

Currently, there are several design philosophies in earthquake engineering, making use of experimental results, computer simulations and observations from past earthquakes to offer the required performance for the seismic threat at the site of interest. These range from appropriately sizing the structure to be strong and ductile enough to survive the shaking with an acceptable damage, to equipping it with base isolation or using structural vibration control technologies to minimize any forces and deformations. While the former is the method typically applied in most earthquake-resistant structures, important facilities, landmarks and cultural heritage buildings use the more advanced (and expensive) techniques of isolation or control to survive strong shaking with minimal damage. Examples of such applications are the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels and the Acropolis Museum